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Papermaking — An Art for All Ages

It has, however, been republished and translated into French, German, and English, which fortunately makes reading a bit less hard. The prize for the first ever book entirely about paper goes to the Ferrara doctor and lecturer in law, Francesco Maria Nigrisoli , whose De charta ejusque usu apud antiquos , was published in Venice by Girolamo Albrizzi in Unfortunately that is its only merit.

In terms of content, apart from a very brief explanation of the papermaking process, it is just academic waffle.

The Eighteenth century of course provides us with several accounts of papermaking, some of them magnificently illustrated that have dominated all subsequent discussions. First published in in two volumes, the entry relating to Paper is not in the main sequence, but is to be found in the lengthy unpaged Addenda placed at the end of the second volume. Since it takes up six pages, it is a conspicuous afterthought. The description of the papermaking process, obviously written from first-hand observation, is concise, but valuable, and has been heavily drawn on by English-language bibliographers, such as Philip Gaskell.

The invention of the Hollander beater at the end of the Seventeenth century aroused immense interest at the time. It includes copper-plate illustrations both of the traditional stamping mill and of the newer Hollander beater, though of course the discussion limits itself to the beating process and does not deal with papermaking as such. All these early treatises were eclipsed, however, by what was originally conceived and written as a technical report, but has since become a keystone in the history of papermaking scholarship.

The work had a complex genesis over a period of some seventy years. Begun in and completed in , the complex represented the state of the art and was fitted with the new Hollander beaters. In the building was sold and the following year was converted into a rubber-processing plant by the American businessman, Hiram Hutchinson , who however only spent a year in France before turning the factory over to his son, Alcander.

How to Make Handmade Paper: 5 Steps

On the night of September most the structure was destroyed by a disastrous fire, which left only one of the original wings intact, and meant that the factory had to be entirely rebuilt. On Google Maps the rectangular-shaped basin dug for the original paper factory, which drew water from the nearby canal, is still clearly visible. What is remarkable about the books, but also accounts for their rarity, is that they include sample sheets of each and every type of paper so it is also the first known example of a paper sample book.

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Although the use of alternative fibres did not take off at the time, the experiments pointed a long way into the future. In a Dutch scholar, Gerard Meerman , offered a prize of twenty-five ducats for whomever could establish the date of the earliest rag-based paper. This work is notable also for containing the first published reproduction of watermarks [23]. For example, the workmen at the vat are described as the tuffatore and the distenditore , from the French plongeur and coucheur , rather than the correct Italian terms, lavorente and ponitore.

Or rather, such texts were written, but for the world of mechanical papermaking, and for the most part they are technical manuals about the workings of now obsolete machinery. Although most of the book is about the machinery and the practical running of a mill, there are interesting pages about the sorting of rags, in a period before artificial fibre destroyed the centuries-old basic material of papermaking.

Aller au contenu principal. William M. In his treatise De insignis et armis the Fourteenth-century Italian jurist, Bartolo da Sassoferrato , famously talks about brands or griffes in surprisingly modern fashion and gives the watermarking of paper at Fabriano as an example: Quedam vero sunt signa cuiusdam artificii seu peritie. Et hic advertendum, quandoque sunt signa artificii in quo principaliter operatur qualitas loci. Exemplum: in marchia Anchonitana est quoddam castrum nobile cuius nomen est Fabrianum, ubi artificium faciendi cartas de papiro principaliter viget, ibique sunt edificia multa ad hoc et ex quibusdam edificiis meliores carte proveniunt, licet ibi faciat multum bonitas operantis.

Et, ut videmus, quodlibet folium carte suum habet signum propter quod significatur cuius edificii est carta. Dico ergo, quod isto casu apud illum remanebit signum apud quem remanebit edificium in quo fit, sive iure proprietatis, sive iure conductionis, sive quovis alio titulo, sive in totum, sive in partem, sive etiam mala fide teneat, toto tempore quo tenet non potest prohiberi uti signo, sicut in ceteris iuribus realibus Translation: Some trade marks are proper to a particular craft or skill, and here it should be noted that sometimes they are connected to the nature of the place in which the product is chiefly made.

For example, in the March of Ancona, there is a certain noble city called Fabriano, where the manufacture of paper is the main business. Here there are many paper mills, and some of them produce better paper, although even here the skill of the worker is of considerable importance.

Hand Papermaking Manual

And here each sheet of paper has its own watermark by which one can recognize the paper mill. Therefore, in this case the watermark should belong to the one to whom the mill itself belongs, no matter whether it remains in his possession by right of ownership or lease, or by any other title, wholly or in part, or even in bad faith. During the entire time in which he has possession of the mill, he cannot be prohibited from using the watermark, as with other rights to immovable property [5].

In his large volume De partibus aedium , published in Parma, probably in , better known perhaps for its references to cheese and wine making, the humanist Francesco Maria Grapaldo, after a disquisition on book practices in the ancient world, introduces a contemporary first-hand account of papermaking, as he had perhaps seen it practiced in the paper mills in the hills above Parma: Apud nos hodie charta e lineis canabinisque pannis veteribus et attritis producitur.

Secti in frustula aqua inspersa per dies xi macerantur et in pila aquaria pilis ferratis minutim contusi addita calce in alteram transferuntur. Mox glutino facto ex pellium quisquiliis sive ramentis, quae coriarii et membranarii reponunt ad hunc usum fervefactis intincta. Rursus siccata et vitro levigata aptissima redduntur ad tolerandos calamos: et atramentum non transmittendum.

How to Make a Mould & Deckle for Hand Papermaking

In hoc Parmenses chartae sibi principatum vendicarunt, cum in candore prae caeteris Fabrianae commendentur. Prima enim chartae datur adorea: si non est bibula et atramentum non sorbet, quod si fuerit siccandae scripturae, ne fiant liturae erit utilis.

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Translation: Nowadays we make paper from old and worn out rags of linen and hemp. These are cut into pieces, water is poured over them, and they are left to soak for eleven days, after which they are transferred into vats filled with water and, with the addition of lime, pounded into pulp with iron mortars. Next they are removed and placed in a vat of water, in which the workers dip frames that allow water to pass through and so draw out the individual sheets. These they interleave with felts and squeeze in a press.

After they are dried in a spacious building specially designed for it, they are dipped in hot glue made from the fragments and scraps which tanners and parchment makers set aside for the purpose. After being dried again, they are calendared with a piece of glass, so they will take writing and not let the ink through.

In this respect Parma paper is reckoned to be the best, while Fabriano paper is highly praised for its whiteness. It is held to be a prime quality in paper that it is not absorbent and does not soak up the ink—yet if it does, it will still be useful for drying the handwriting so as to avoid blots. Graece enim emporos mercator et emporium locus mercatus et nundinationis ad quem distrahendi praestinandique causa conveniunt mercatores. Chartaceum involucrum cucullum dicemus et venditorem chartarum chartularium nos, graeci chartopolin.

Translation: a cheaper sort is emporetica, which is no good for writing on, but in the manner of a straw wrapper provides covering for goods, hence its name. For in Greek a merchant is known as an emporos and an emporium is the market place where things are traded, to which merchants go to buy and sell goods. Figure 1. Image by courtesy of Wikisource.

Figure 2. Omnium illiberalium mechanicarum aut sedentarium artium genera continens , Francoforti ad Moenum, apud Georgium Coruinum, impensis Sigismundi Feyerabent, , f. Image by courtesy of The British Museum. Translation: I need rags for my mill. The mill churns through lots of water, so the cut-up rags are beaten. The stuff is full of water.

I make sheets out of it and put them on the felts. Using a press I squeeze the water out, then I hang them up and let them dry. Snow-white and smooth, that is how we want it to be. Principibus nostris vix sufficit aurea charta, Sit licet aurata saepe notata manu. Translation: From old rags I weave my thin paper, as the rough millstone turns round in circles. Antiquity once wrote its words on tablets, which an unskilled hand formed from liquid wax, though sheer simplicity rare among us nowadays and sheer love had people writing in earth.

For our princes gilded paper scarce suffices, though it be often inscribed with golden hand. Ancient report gave no one any definite credit as the first inventor of this art. Hardly epic verse! Wood Chips and Sawdust. Solid Wood Measurement. Wood Chip Measurement.

Wood Chemistry. Wood and Fiber Physics.


Properties of Selected Wood Species. Nonwood and Recycled Fiber Considerations. Pulping Fundamentals: Introduction to Pulping. Mechanical Pulping. Chemi-Mechanical Pulping. Related Pulping Methods. Semi-Chemical Pulping. General Chemical Pulping. Soda Pulping. Kraft Pulping. Sulfite Pulping. OtherPulping Methods. Market Pulp. Pulp Washing.

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